The Potowmack Institute

Will Americans for Responsible Solutions
become responsible for constitutional government?
Letter to Mark Kelly, Americans for Responsible Solutions, Dec. 20, 2016:

Letter to Mark Kelly, Dec. 15, 2016:

Letter to Mark Kelly, Nov. 28, 2016:

Letter to Mark Kelly, July 5, 2016:

The Sources:

Retired Sup. Ct. Justice John Paul Stevens fails us:

The anarchic "armed populace doctrine"
in federal court.

What the gun rights militants, led by the NRA want:

What the NRA works hardest to achieve:

Constitutional doctrine:

The anarchic agenda advances:

The militia inventory in the early Republic:

Friedrich Hayek on demagoguery:

The "armed populace at large" as "armed citizen guerrillas":

David Kopel's armed dissent:

The NRA and the right of the people:

What James Madison was really describing in Federalist Paper No. 46:

The op/ed pages of Investors Business Daily have nothing on Porter Stansberry:

Lenin's libertarian fantasy. The only Marxist/Leninist political advocacy in our preent political culture is the National Rifle Association.

NRA/Gun Lobby

Charlton Heston Speaks, National Press Club, 9/97; Free Congress Foundation, 12/97

What does the NRA want? Letter to Tanya Metaksa. Response from NRA Research Coordinator Paul Blackman, with comments.

"The Founders and the AK47," Sue Wimmershoff-Caplan, Wash. Post, 7/6/89

NRA's official statement on extremists, with comments.

"Training for Dooms Day:..." Karen McNutt, Gun News Digest

Neal Knox and Wm. Cooper


The Second Amendment in Court: US v. Emerson, US v. Wright, US v. Warin, Pencak, Hale, Oakes, City of Renton, Nelson, and more.

The Libertarian Fantasy on the Supreme Court, Thomas and Scalia, Joyce Lee Malcolm, Ayn Rand, Blackstone, Joseph Story's "Palladium of the Liberties"

Houston v. Moore, 1820. Early militia case with opinion by Joseph Story.

Martin v. Mott, 1827. Early militia case with opinion by Joseph Story.

Texas v. White (1869) Chief Justice Salmon Chase rules secession is illegal.
Part 1: Statement of the Case. 17K.
Part 2: Attorneys for the Complainant. 16K.
Part 3: Attorneys for the Defendants. 30K.
Part 4: Opinions of Chief Justice Salmon Chase and Justice Robert Grier and Justice Noah Swayne. 61K.

"NRA as amicus curiae in Perpich v. Department of Defense, 1990.

"Washington Legal Foundation as amicus curiae in Perpich v. Department of Defense, 1990.

Other Items

Responses to David Kopel

Libertarian Party Platform, Excerpts

"The Second Coming", Chapter 12, Sidney Blumenthal's The Rise of the Counter-Establishment.

"The Quotes, The Quotes", fabricating the armed populace doctrine.

"The Return of Militia", Pres. Jefferson's report to Congress, March, 1804. American State Papers, Military Affairs, No. 52.

American State Papers, Military Affairs, No. 57.

abusing quote of Mohandas Gandhi.

The Gun Controllers

The Violence Policy Center's registration and licensing page: Falling in line with the NRA,

The Enforcement Fable, Brady Center report, March, 2000.

News Media

The Washington Post, Cultivating Ignorance

Other News, ABC, CBS

NPR, WAMU:Diane Rehm, Derek McGinty

"Taking Up the Second Amendment", Unpublished in the Chr. Sc. Monitor, 5/95

"The Gun Lobby's Problem", Unpublished in the Balto. Sun, 5/95

"Toward a National Firearms Policy", Unpublished in the Wash. Post, 12/93

Bill Clinton, NRA on ABC, March, 2000

published letter to the editor.


Getting Commitment from Congress, The blood on their doorsteps

Maryland Assembly, Statement on Governor's gun law, 1996

Norman Olson, Michigan Militia, US Senate subcommittee, June 15, 1995

Daniel Polsby, US House Judiciary subcommittee, April 5, 1995, with comments.


Rep. Bob Barr, Rep. Steve Buyer, The rule of law in the impeacment debates.

What's wrong with Barney Frank?

Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, April 5, 1995.

Dennis Henigan, Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, April 5, 1995.

Joyce Lee Malcolm, Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, April 5, 1995.

Robert Cottrol, Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, April 5, 1995.

Daniel Polsby, Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, April 5, 1995.


John Kenneth Rowland, excerpt from previously unpublished PhD dissertation, Ohio State, 1976.

John Kenneth Rowland, Appendix A, US v. Emerson, 1999.

Don Higginbotham, "The Second Amendment in Historical Context," Constitutional Commentary, October, 1999.

Saul Cornell, "Commonplace or Anarchronism: The Standard Model, the Second Amendment, and the Problem of History in contemporary Constitutional Theory," Constitutional Commentary, October, 1999.

Michael Bellesiles, "Suicide Pact: New Readings of the Second Amendment," Constitutional Commentary, October, 1999.

Garry Wills, "To Keep and Bear Arms", New York Review of Books, September 21, 1995.

Lawrence Cress, "An Armed Community: The Origins and the Meaning of the Right to Bear Arms," J. Am. Hist., 1984.

Pseudohistory, LaPierre's List and the Law Reviews

Revolutionary Militia Consciousness, Militia Act of 1792.

Leon Friedman, Conscription and the Constitution: The Original Understanding," Michigan Law Review, June, 1969. Historical and legal overview of difference between militia and regular army in the context of conscription. Very enlightening.

George Washington, 1783.
"Sentiments on a Peace Establishment".

Henry Knox, 1786.
"A Plan for the General Arrangement of the Militia of the United States".

Henry Knox, George Washington, 1790.
"Organization of the Militia," Plan submitted to Congress, January 1790, American State Papers, Military Affairs, No. 2.

Dave R. Palmer, 1794: America, Its Army, The Birth of the Nation, (1994)

Chapter 10, "The Ghost of Oliver Cromwell"

Noah Webster, 1785
Sketches of American Policy

Pamphlet, widely circulated before the Constitutional Convention.

Noah Webster, 1787
An Examination of the Leading Principles of the Federal Constitution

Pamphlet, second only the Federalist Papers in influencing ratification of the Constitution.

Noah Webster, 1828
Definitions from 1828 Dictionary

John Trenchard & Walter Moyle, An Argument shewing that a Standing Army is inconsistent with a Free Government, 1697

The concerns and consciousness of the 18th century.

John K. Mahon, History of the Militia and the National Guard, 1983

Chapter 3, "The American Revolution"
Chapter 4, "The Militia in the Early National Period."
Chapter 5, "The Jeffersonian Militia and the War of 1812."

Charles McIlwain, "Sovereignty in the World Today," Measure, 1950.


"Addressing Gun Violence", Unpublished in New England Journal of Medicine, 2/94.

"Guns, Rights, the Libertarian Fantasy, and the Rule of Law", Not Seen in The Responsive Community, 1998.

"The Armed Citizen and the Rule of Law", Unpublished in New York Times Magazine, 1995.

"The Gun Lobby's Problem", Unpublished in the Baltimore Sun, 1995.

"Addressing Gun Violence", Unpublished, the New England Journal of Medicine, 1994.

"Taking Up the Second Amendment", Unpublished, the Christian Science Monitor, 1995.


The Rule of Law

"The Sources of Disillusion," Chap. 1 from Peter G. Brown, Restoring Public Trust. Brown gives discussion to the rightwing movement and the inadequacy of any opposition to oppose it.
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Ernest van den Haag, "Libertarians & Conservatives," National Review, June 8, 1979. Critique of the libertarian fantasy from the perspective of a national security cold warrior.

Whittaker Chambers, "Big Sister is Watching You," National Review, December 28, 1957. Critical review of Ayn Rand.

"Seducing the Left: The Third Party that Wants YOU," Mother Jones, May, 1980. Resource on the Libertarian Party.

"Libertarian Movement in America," George Friedman and Gary McDowell, Journal of Contemporary Studies, Summer, 1983. The difference between "total liberty" and "ordered liberty."

Frank S. Meyer, "Libertarianism or Libertinism?", National Review, September 9, 1969. The "anarchist wing of the SDS" has come full circle now in the NRA's "armed citizen guerrillas."

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[US v. Emerson PAGE]
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